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Fishing shot from Lake Black- 
shear — one of Georgia's beautiful 
lakes and rates among the best for 
Bass and Bream. 

Tallulah River, one of the finest 
trout streams in North Georgia, is 
favorite among fishermen of all 

9h JkUJf^ue 

Game and Fish Commission 

Progress 2 

The True Meaning 3 

Beavers — Old Mother Nature's 

Engineers 4 

Shrimp Boats are A-Coming 6 

Shad Fish on the Ga. Coast 7 

Woe be the Life of A Ranger 8 

Safety on the Water 10 

Fish Stocking 13 

Industrial Pollution and Fishing 14 

Hey, Don't Throw those Pan 

Fish Back 17 

Pollution — Georgia's Sixty-four 

Dollar Question 19 

License Fees 22 

The Ten Commandments 

of Safety 24 

A Fisherman's Prayer 27 

Game and Fish Commission Progress 


iS a report to the people of the State, we feel it the duty of the 
ri Department to not only point out the progress that we have made 
in restoring fishing over the State, but also to let you know of those 
things which experience and research points out as necessary to 
bring about even better fishing not only for those who are fishing 
today, but the hundreds of new anglers who are turning to fishing 

each year. 

During the past few years, 
this Department has had various 
types of research projects ac- 
tivated, and from some of those 
projects, we know that we are 
already reaping the harvest 
from others. It brings to the 
surface needed cooperation in 
helping to educate the public to 
the necessity of coping with 
problems that will ultimately 
improve fishing. 

Not only has the Game and 
Fish Department introduced new 
types of fish in various public 
streams and lakes over the State, 
which has improved fishing, but 
also the Enforcement Division 
has been put on a more efficient 
basis by the closer selection of 
Wildlife Rangers, additional 
training, increased pay scale, the 
furnishing of trucks for convey- 
FULTON , ?. , V" . . ance of equipment, and the use 
Director, Game ana Fish Commission Q ^ ra( jj os 

We now know that we must have the cooperation of our courts 
in order for us to be more efficient in enforcing the game laws, and 
it is a disheartening chore for a Wildlife Ranger to spend hours in 
apprehending a violator only to have the courts make a mockery of 
his endeavors by either out-right releasing the guilty party or plac- 
ing such a small fine or sentence upon him that it only encourages 
others. We know that we must have the cooperation of the courts, 
because it does no good to restock and bring about a better balance 
of game and fish in our fields and streams only to have it exploited 
by a few violators. 

Our research projects have proven to all that our lakes and 
streams are bound in rough fish to the extent that possibly 90 '< 
of the fish population of the entire state is of a variety that is 
not sought by the average fisherman who expects to be able to 
take home with him the type fish that will not only give him 
pleasure while taking them, but help feed his family. 

We know that in Allatoona Lake, which has a total acreage 
of 10,500 acres, that there are approximately 395 tons of rough fish. 
In Lake Chatuge in Towns County there are approximately 52 tons ; 
in the Savannah River, 2,168 tons; in the Satilla River, 103 tons; 
in the Altamaha River, 1,452 tons, and so on over the State. 

— Continued on Page 26 


Fishing Edition 

Bill Cornelison Editor 

Bill Atkinson, Assistant Editor 

Vol. 4, No. 10 

Published by the Georgia Came and Fish Commission, 412 State Capitol, Atlanta. Georgia in the interest of Georgia wildlife and for fishermen, hunt- 
ers, nature lovers and conservation of natural resources. There is no subscription fee — this publication is free and is paid for by the purchase of 
fishing and hunting licenses. Please notify us at once of any change of address. Contents of this magazine may be reprinted with proper credit. 
This publication welcomes pictures, drawings, stories and articles dealing with outdoor subjects for consideration. No contributions will be returned 
unless solicited by authorized party representing Game & Fish Commission and accompanied by sufficient postage. Entered as third class postage. 



JpEOPLE who go fishing solely 
to catch fish are missing 
something that can be, and often 
is, vital to their physical and 
mental welfare. They are missing 
the true meaning of the spirit 
of fishing. 

Fishing is not only good sport, 
it is good medicine, especially in 
these days of hurry and tension. 
If fish are biting and a good 
catch is made, well and good. 
The fisherman reaps the double 
reward of the sport and enjoying 
the fish when he gets home. But 
if no fish are caught, what's the 
worry? We can still get out- 
doors, maybe cogitate a little, 
and find relaxation. 

Not too long ago I fell victim 
to a conglomeration of aches and 
pains in the neck, back and 
chest. The chest pain' made me 
think of heart trouble, so I went 
to see my doctor. He examined 

Mr. and Mrs. M. N. Watkins of Canton, pass 
the time of day with Mr. and Mrs. M. Cul- 
len of Atlanta. These couples found the true 
meaning years ago. 

Dr. B. B. Gray prescribes a little fishing and 
relaxation for himself. 

me and gave me about the nicest 
prescription I've ever had. He 
said "go fishing." 

I didn't need any other advice, 
but he explained anyway, that I 
needed relaxation, and said 
there's no better place to find it 
than on or around water. 

Acting on his "prescription" I 
took the boat to the Clark Hill 
reservoir. Hurrying in spite of 
myself because of the tension, I 
put the boat in at the Elijah 
Clark State park near Lincoln- 
ton and went to Elam's Soap 
Creek camp for lunch. Then I 

just rode around the lake above 
the park. 

Finally I concluded that the 
noise of the motor was, maybe, 
keeping me from hearing other 
things that I'd like better, so I 
cut it off and let the boat drift, 
while I leaned back against a 
cushion. The late afternoon sun 
was coloring the sky, the rip- 
ples were lapping lazily against 
the sides of the boat, and sev- 
eral herons flying somewhere to 
roost were silhouetted against 
the sky. 

I didn't even want to fish. 
Catching a fish would have been 
a disturbing note in the midst of 
all that serenity. Then I was 
sound asleep for at least 15 min- 
utes. It was more refreshing 
than all the sleep I had the night 
before. All of my tensions van- 
ished. I went home, ate an enor- 
mous supper and went to sleep 
again. Doc's prescription had 
worked, and I had found again 
the true meaning of the spirit of 

Biblical Background 

Whether the doctor thought 
of it or not, he had some good 
Biblical background for his "pre- 

After the crucifixion, the 
disciples who had followed and 
worshipped the Master for so 
long, were awaiting the prom- 
ised resurrection. So far as they 

— Continued on Page 2l> 


014 tilctker ttatureJ 

^HE American Beaver played 
/ the greatest role in the set- 
tlement of North America than 
did any other wild animal. The 
Hudson Bay Company was 
formed for the trading and buy- 
ing of the beaver pelts in the 
North, and as the beaver popula- 
tion was trapped down the trap- 
pers moved further westward 
and when a large number of 
beavers were found these trap- 
pers would settle down and a 
small settlement would grow and 
from these some of our largest 
cities have grown. 

Here in Georgia we have only 
one sub species of beaver known 
as the Carolina Beaver. At one 
time this beaver was nearly ex- 
tinct here in the state and they 
were placed on the protective 
list. Wherever a large colony 
was found, several beaver were 
trapped out by the State Trapper 
and carried to some other sec- 
tion of the state that had de- 
sirable conditions for beaver and 
here they were released. If any- 
one has land that has the suit- 
able habitat for beaver it is 

f \ m 

possible to get beaver for re- 
leasing on this property. 

On the government refuge be- 
tween Monticello, Ga., and Grey, 
Ga., a colony of beaver have set 
up and have built quite a few 
ponds here. It is estimated that 
there are between twenty to 
thirty beaver in this colony 
which is considered one of the 
largest colonies in the state. 

Their dam is a structure that 
would make the engineers sit 
back and scratch their heads, 
trying to figure out how these 
animals picked exactly the right 
spot on the stream to construct 
this dam, so as to keep a consis- 
tent water level which is a must 

to the beavers to start a colony. 
The dam is several yards wide 
and several yards thick at the 
base and tapers to a few feet at 
the top of the dam. It is con- 
structed of large logs for the 
base work which the beavers 
float down and anchor, and then 
twigs and sapling are brought in 
their mouths and intertwined to 
form the major portion of the 
dam. After this framework has 
been set up they bring mud and 
stones in their forepaws to the 
structure and this is patted into 
place with their broad tails. 

Another question which our 
human engineers have tried to 
figure out is just how these 
beaver can build a dam to flood 
just the right amount of land that 
they will need. In this one par- 
ticular area on the Ocmulgee 
River the beaver have flooded 
fifty to a hundred acres and 
there are remains of several 
dams that have been abandoned 
either because of the low water 
or siltation in the ponds or some 
reason known only to them. 
Some of these dams are several 
hundred yards long. 

Below the new dams the beav- 
ers have constructed what we 
call check dams. These check 
dams are used in case the larger 
dams break or the rainfall 
causes too much water to flood 
the area. These dams are small- 
er than the larger ones but are 

— Continued on Page 23 

THE BEAVER. (1)— His home. (2)— His workshop. (3 & 4)— His 
early morning swim and his own homemade pool. (5) — Construction of the 
dam shows the engineer^ ability of the Beaver. (6) — So now he decides 
to go out of the water and really go to work. (7) — And he really does 
some big jobs. (8) — Bill Atkinson shows the size of some of the trees 
the Beaver will tackle 


(1) — This is a typical Shrimp Boat There are hundreds of these 
along the Coast of Georgia. (2) — This shows the way the Shrimp Boats 
are out before the drag for Shrimp is started. (3) — The drag is fin- 
ished. Let's bring her in and see what we have caught. (4) — Well, she 
sure caught a mess that time. (5) — You are asking yourself now 
"Where are the Shrimp" You must take the Editor's word there are 
some Shrimp in this mess. 




(1) — These two Shod Fishermen show a real fine haul. (2) — Shad * 
fishing is hard work as you con see with the hundreds of feet of net 
to get untangled. (3) — The work isn't over even when the fish are 
caught. There still remains the job of taking them from the nets. 
(4) — Some of the Shad Fishermen seldom leave the River during the 
seoson. Many live in houseboats such as these. (5) — But at $2.00 per 
fish, maybe it isn't so bad after all — huh!! 


Wee he the 
iifr e$ a 


South Dakota Conservation 

A wildlife ranger's lot is not 
w\ an easy one. He is one of 
those unfortunate persons who 
is severely criticized "if he does" 
and similarly criticized "if he 
does not." In our society today, 
we have far too many people 
who firmly believe that game 
and fish laws and regulations 
should be enforced to the "nth" 
degree — except when those laws 
or regulations interfere directly 
with themselves, their relatives 
or their close friends. 

During the past fishing sea- 
son we had approximately 
750,000 fishermen in Georgia 
lakes and streams. Naturally, 
our wardens were not able to 
contact each of these fishermen 
but they did contact a fairly 
large percentage of them 
throughout the fishing season. 

Checking fishing licenses is 
but a small portion of the ran- 
ger's daily routine. He is equally 
curious about where you are 
from, is this the first time you 
fished in this locality? Did you 
see a lot of fishermen? Where 
did you fish? Did you get your 
daily limit? It may appear to 
you that he is getting rather 
nosey, but to the ranger these 
questions are important in de- 
termining fishing population 
trends in certain sections of his 
territory. The wildlife ranger 
also must be able to answer a 
multitude of questions which 
seemingly "stack up" to await 
the presence of the uniformed 
"man in green." Then at an hour 
when sensible people are home 
in bed, the telephone at the ran- 
ger's residence suddenly be- 
comes busy with conversation 

— Continued on Page 22 



'.* I 


Shown here ore some scenes in the typical day of a Wildlife Ronger. 
(1) — Rangers R. S. Beasley and E. Lee remove illegal fish traps from 
the Savannah River. (2) — Ranger Jim Riden discusses with Mr. Sauce 
Gardner, of Madison, Georgia, the effect phnting Amber Cain will 
have on the quail in that section (3) — Distrk. Chief Thomasson and 
Ranger Pitts shown patrolling on a lake. (4) — Even while having their 
morning coffee Ranger Jim Riden and Frank Thornton discuss Game 
and Fish rules and regulations with Senator Roy Lambert, of Madison. 
(5) — Ranger A. B. Elrod shown checking licenses and giving informa- 
tion to fishermen on Nottely Lake. (6) — Ranger Howard Whitner shown 
checking fishing licenses and explaining fishing laws to a young citizen 
of Murray County. 


/N spite of the early date, we 
have already had some tragic 
water accidents this year in 
Georgia. With more and more 
people turning to outdoor recrea- 
tion, water safety is becoming 
of prime importance to every- 

Knowing how to swim is prob- 
ably the best equipment one can 
have for water safety. Unfor- 
tunately many adult Georgians 
have never had the opportunity 
to learn to swim. 

Most of us learn to swim when 
we are youngsters. If we don't 
learn then, we usually go 
through life without having this 
simple ability. Today's young- 
sters usually have a chance to 
learn how to swim. 

Back in the days when Dad 
was a lad, there just weren't 
many places where he could go 
swimming except in rivers and 
creeks. Today, with the many 
reservoirs and city and school 
swimming pools, almost every 
Georgia youngster has a place to 
go swimming. 

They also have the chance to 
learn how to swim from quali- 
fied instructors, thanks to the 
YMCA, YWCA, Boy and Girl 
Scouts and other youth organi- 
zations. Many schools offer 
swimming instruction in their 
physical education courses. 

Much of our Georgia wacer 
does not have supervised 
beaches. The Georgia Game and 
Fish Commission does not rec- 
ommend swimming at unsuper- 
vised beaches at any of its rec- 
reation areas. 

If you can't swim, it's time to 
learn how, from a qualified in- 
structor. If you can swim, a good 
safety precaution is the Buddy 
System used in many youth 

— Continued on Page 23 




(1) — These housewives from Marietta are treating their children to a picnic at Acworth 
Beach. (2) — Many supervised beaches such as this are available throughout Georgia to 
the public. (3) — All are under the watchful eyes of a fully-qualified lifeguard at all times. 



This is one of the mognificent scenes you -Jm 
I will see while trout fishing in north Georgia. <4h 




> * * ^fc-w , ^pt *tL- 53£ 

_*- MET 4-' 



Fish Stocking 

f HERE'S one basic fact that 
/ needs to be understood if 
you are to properly determine 
the role of stocking fish. Fish 
are prolific — much more prolif- 
ic than most animals we deal 

We can't give accurate figures 
on egg production because a big 
female lays far more eggs than 
a small female of the same 
species. However, in general, a 
trout may lay 1,000 eggs, a bass 
10,000, a bluegill 20,000, a wall- 
eye 50,000, and a big carp might 
lay a million. Under suitable 
conditions, a big percentage of 
these eggs hatch. One study on 
a 14-acre lake showed that the 
number of fry produced natural- 
ly by four species (largemouth 
bass, bluegill, common sunfish, 
rock bass) was slightly over 
500,000 per acre. The water 
would support only a few hun- 
dred adult fish per acre. 

We have had instances where 
the limited brood stock present 
in the original river was more 
than adequate to provide all the 
young fish needed to stock big 

A big female bass in a one- 
acre farm pond could produce 
enough progeny so that, if all 
eggs hatched and all fish sur- 
vived for three generations, 
there would be enough fish, at 
one pound each, to replace the 
water in the pond, and to make 
a heap, one acre in area, extend- 
ing over 700 feet above the 
pond ! 

Obviously, fish are prolific. 
We can understand the picture 
if we will think of cows each 
having thousands of calves each 
year. If each cow had only 
10,000 calves, adding a truck 
load of calves wouldn't increase 
the cattle population of a pas- 
ture very appreciably. 

There's an added item. Fish 
need food— lots of it. Their food 
chains tend to be long. The aver- 
age acre of water in the United 

States probably supports only 
about a hundred pounds per 
acre. This may range all the way 
from a very few pounds in some 
waters to a thousand pounds or 
more in some small highly pro- 
ductive waters. 

It's easy to see why, during 
the days of the hatchery 
"craze," many of our hopes were 
unrealized. We can understand, 
now, why much of the stocking 
was ineffective or even harmful. 
During those days the public 
was quite willing to accept the 
belief that stocking was the pan- 
acea to all our fishing ills. We 
fishery workers believed it, too, 
and advocated it. The job of sell- 
ing the stocking idea was an ef- 
fective one. It was later that we 
learned more about fish being 
prolific and about the food 

The job of "unselling" has not 
been an easy one. For instance, a 
year or two ago we talked with 
a farmer about his farm pond. 
He had decided to start fishing 
it but then he observed an im- 
mense crop of bluegill fry — 
"millions of 'em." "We decided 
to wait until they grow up be- 
fore starting the fishing," said 
the farmer. The man had a well- 
managed farm. He had only a 
limited number of cows in his 
pasture. He understood about 
carrying capacity and overgraz- 
ing on the land. But to him the 
farm pond was quite different. 

There's the case, too, of 
sportsmen being delighted when 
a federal truck delivered bass 
fry for distribution in the rather 
extensive bass waters of one 
county. The supply consisted of 
5,000 fry, less than half the po- 
tential output of one female! 

Though there are still excep- 
tions, more and more sportsmen 
recognize the fact that stocking 
has limitations. In general, the 
public still looks on stocking as 
a cure-all only in those states 
where the top fishery people 

(some ex-hatchery men or poli- 
ticians) have been disinterested 
in public enlightenment, for ob- 
vious reasons. 

Stocking does have major lim- 
itations. But it's one of our im- 
portant fish conservation tools. 
Properly used, stocking plays an 
important role in improving our 

Warmwater Fish 

For warm waters we must re- 
ly on planting small fish. Rais- 
ing game fish to adult size in 
hatcheries costs a fortune. Rear- 
ing a bass to twelve inches would 
cost an estimated two to four 
dollars. Not over half the planted 
fish can be expected to be re- 
caught. This raises the average 
price of each bass creeled to four 
to eight dollars — more than the 
average price of a fishing li- 
cense. So far as we know, only 
one state still carries on this ex- 
pensive practice. 

Planting warmwater finger- 
lings serves a good purpose in a 
number of instances: 

1. To stock new waters, es- 
pecially farm ponds and new 
public fishing lakes. 

2. Reintroduction of fish in 
lakes depleted by winterkill. 

3. Introducing species not al- 
ready present, where such intro- 
duction is desirable. 

4. Restocking of waters from 
which existing fish populations 
were removed through use of 
chemicals or by draining. 

5. In some instances stocking 
will help fishing in waters where 
the fish are already present, but 
where conditions for spawning 
are inadequate. For example, 
Minnesota has been able to pro- 
vide walleye fishing in some 
kinds of waters by stocking 
them heavily with walleye fin- 
gerlings. The situations where 
stocking of this kind is helpful 
seem to be rather limited; the 
need for the stocking should be 
determined by the professional 
fishery worker. 

Coldwater Fish 
The stocking picture for 
warmwater fish and coldwater 
fish differs rather decidedly. 
Trout can be raised to catchable 
size at a much lower cost than 
would be needed to raise bass or 

— Continued on Page 21 



nOMESTIC sewage has ruined 
•^ many a fishing stream. But, 
industrial pollution has done even 
more damage. In the last fifty 
years there has been a seven- 
fold increase in industrial pro- 
duction. This big increase has 
added tremendous volumes of in- 
dustrial wastes to our streams. 

In the United States, more 
than 10,000 separate plants are 
discharging these wastes — food 
processing, meat packing, textile 
manufacturing, pulp and paper 
mills, synthetic fibers, rubber 
manufacturing, steel, oil and pe- 
troleum products, metal finish- 
ing, coal washing, and many 

About 6,000 of these plants 
discharge wastes which decom- 
pose in the same way that city 


sewage does. And, as with city 
sewage, the decay removes oxy- 
gen from the water, making it 
unsuitable for fish and fish food. 
The discharge from these 6,000 
plants is equal to the pollution 
effect from the sewage of about 
110,000,000 people. In other 
words, these 6,000 plants do 
nearly twice as much harm, pol- 
lution-wise, as is done by the 
8,000 communities, with a popu- 
lation of 60 million, which dis- 
charge raw or inadequately 
treated sewage into our waters. 
In addition to those mentioned 
above, about 5,000 plants dis- 
charge additional inorganic or 
undetermined types of wastes. 
Too, about 10,000 tons of acid 
are draining into the waters each 
day from mines. 

The acids and chemical wastes 
are responsible for many of the 
big fish kills which we read 
about. They are toxic to fish and 
to the organisms on which the 
fish feed. 

Certain insecticides used on 
cotton and other plants wash 
into streams and kill fish and 
fish foods. 

Many polluting industries are 
spending considerable sums of 
money to find out how they can 
prevent polluting the waters. On 
the other hand, some polluters 
don't seem to care what happens 
to the wastes discharged by their 
plants. Because of the latter, we 
need strong pollution laws, rig- 
idly enforced. 

Industrial organic waste can 
be treated in much the same way 
that sewage is, if given primary 
and secondary treatment by 

cities with modern sewage treat- 
ment plants. 

Many industries are learning, 
too, that much of the material 
which they have discharged into 
streams can be converted into 
valuable by-products. For exam- 
ple, distillery wastes are now 
used for cattle feeds, and some 
paper mill wastes are used as 
road binder. Some of the indus- 
tries which discharge acids or 
other toxic wastes can treat 
them to make them less harm- 
ful, or can keep the wastes from 
discharging to the stream. Some 
can find valuable uses for these 
toxic materials. 

We must have industrial pro- 
duction, and must maintain and 
expand it, if we are to keep our 
position of leadership in the mod- 
ern world and maintain our 
standard of living. But, we can 
have both large-scale production 
and clean waters if we really 
want both. 

You can help prevent pollution 
by insisting on good antipollu- 
tion laws and by calling attention 

to the polluters; also, by urging 
the polluters to find ways of dis- 
continuing their destruction of 
fishing, swimming, and other 
aquatic sports. An enlightened 
and determined public can stop 
most pollution. 

If you plan to take a vacation 
trip, check first to see if the 
waters you intend to enjoy are 
unpolluted. The state water con- 
trol agencies and the U. S. Public 
Health Service now have the re- 
sults of an over-all survey show- 
ing where pollution exists. If the 
waters you had hoped to visit 

are polluted, take your vacation 
elsewhere. But, be sure to indi- 
cate to the Chamber of Com- 
merce or tourist bureau why you 
chose to go elsewhere rather 
than to its community. The tour- 
ist business has become an im- 
mense industry. If tourists vis- 
ited only areas with unpolluted 
waters, and indicated why they 
did so, many of our local pollu- 
tion problems would soon be cor- 

Remember — pollution is a ma- 
jor destroyer of our favorite 


(1) — One of the large Crappies taken from Jackson Lake. (2) — This 
young man from Rabun County displays a string of trout that would 
make experienced anglers in Georgia envy his fishing ability. (3) — Like 
father, like daughter, this pretty little miss is the daughter of Tommy 
Shaw, manager of Sportsman's Landing, of Clark Hill, and apparently 
she knows how and where to get those big ones. (4) — Grant Dickerson 
receives congratulations from Governor Marvin Griffin on being named 
outstanding young American from Georgia. 




yOU don't have to be loaded 
with money to spend in 
stocking fish in your favorite 
waters — or knock yourself out 
working to improve the habitat 
in a stream or pond — just to be 
a conservationist. YOU can be 
a conservationist while enjoying 
your fishing — just by keeping all 
the pan fish you catch, no mat- 
ter whether they're king-size or 

It wasn't long ago that we had 
limits of the size of pan fish we 
could keep and the limits on the 
pan fish were very few. We 
used to think that to protect our 
future fishing we should take 
fish only if they were a certain 
size, and we should take only a 
very few. We know better now, 
and regulations on size of pan 
fish to be kept have been tossed 
over the side of the boat and the 
legal limit on the number of pan 
fish has been raised considerably. 

Why this apparent about- 
face? To begin with, regulations 

The size of bream is considerably reduced as 
the bream population in a pond increases. 

Sara Godfrey, of Smyrna, Georgia, displays a 
nicp string of bream. 

were often made more or less 
arbitrarily. It seemed that fish 
had to be protected during the 
spawning season, and that they 
should not be taken until they 
were big enough to spawn. With 
these two .ideas uppermost, 
blanket regulations were often 
dreamed up without regard to 
a lot of other factors. 

One factor seldom considered 
was that a body of water will 
support just so many pounds of 
fish. Let's assume that the aver- 
age pond in Georgia will produce 
100 pounds of fish per acre of 


water. That hundred pounds per 
acre can be made up of 1,000 
small fish or 100 larger fish. It 
can consist of any ratio of game 
fish to pan fish — and usually the 
pan fish outnumber the game 
fish more than enough for proper 

If the predators (game fish) 
are fished heavily, they aren't 
able to control the underfished 
forage (pan) fish. The very pro- 
lific pan fish compete with each 
other for availaWe food. With- 
out proper food, many pan fish 
mature long before they are of 
attractive size — in fact they 
often die of old age before get- 
ting big enough to attract a cat ! 

Another item that enters into 
the picture is the fact that, in 
over-crowded conditions, pan fish 
help to keep down the numbers 
of game fish. Some pan fish are 
egg eaters, most of them com- 
pete directly with young game 
fish for available food, and when 
they are very numerous they 
can do a terrific job of limiting 
the survival of game fishes. Thus, 
greater fishing pressure on the 
game fish plus competition from 
the pan fish, coupled with limited 
fishing for the latter, adds up to 
an unbalanced condition — too 
many pan fish and too few game 

The State Game and Fish 
Commission is doing pan fish 

— Continued on Page 2:i 


>- i 



, I - 




Polluted waters in the Altamaha River 
caused this very large fish kill. 


V * 



/*NE of the most reassuring 
(/ movements of our times is 
the awakened interest in pollu- 
tion of our streams in Georgia. 
Let's not deceive ourselves that 
this interest is prompted by gen- 
erous or academic impulses, but 
is being forced on us from sheer 

Reports show that for the 
past several years there has 
been a steady increase of pollu- 
tion reported in the state. 
Whether this has been going on 
and the people are just waking 
up to the fact or whether the 
reports are all new cases doesn't 
matter, the thing that does mat- 
ter is that it is going on and it 
is up to the people of Georgia to 
try and correct the great dam- 
age that is being done to the 
once beautiful streams in our 

If a map of our state was 
marked where pollution had oc- 
curred in the past twenty years 
there would be little space left 
in which a man could read where 
he was going. One of the biggest 
pollution that has occurred in 
the past five years happened on- 
ly a few months ago on the Al- 
tamaha River. For a thirty mile 
run of the river all types of fish 
were killed from a slip by some- 
one. After an investigation cor- 

rective measures were taken 
and at a very small cost the 
goodwill of the people was re- 
gained. If this small cost had 
been spent at the start this 
would never have happened and 
there would never have been the 
fear of happening again. It did 
and there will always be some- 
one that will remember when 
"that plant ruined the fishing 
in 1954." 

Our great state is growing 
and to grow we must have in- 
dustries. With industries there 
comes a certain amount of pollu- 
tion. We welcome these new in- 
dustries and the local people 
know that it will mean a bigger 
income to them, but we feel as 
though we can speak for all the 
sportsmen in the state when we 
ask that industry respect our 
streams by including in their ini- 
tial layout money for disposal 

Last year during the drought 
it was very seldom that a day 
went by that a case of pollution 
wasn't reported. Low water 
showed us many sources of pol- 
lution that had been going on 
for years that otherwise would 
have continued to kill our fish 
had it not been for the small 
amount of water that wasn't 
able to break down the amount 

of pollution. 

One of the chief causes of pol- 
lution in Georgia is the open 
sewerage systems used by some 
of our larger cities. The cities 
have outgrown their facilities 
and therefore much of the raw 
sewerage is being run into our 
streams with the full knowledge 
of the people. How can we ex- 
pect good fishing when this 
practice goes on and nothing is 
ever said or done about it? 

One case of pollution occurred 
right after the H-bomb plant 
was started and the word spread 
that all of the fish in the stream 
were radio active. Fishing went 
to the dogs until it was told that 
the government had checked 
and double checked and the 
small amount of radio active ma- 
terial that did get into the river 
could not affect the streams. As 
the government is checking 
these things many of the new 
industries in the state have their 
own technicians to check their 
waste matter. So — if we could 
get the old industries to adopt 
these same methods as the new 
industries we would have one 
part of our pollution problem 

Our forestry program is a 
great help in clearing up our 
streams because with the trees 
that are planted the root sys- 
tems are holding back land that 
otherwise would have brought 
more siltation into our already 
muddy streams. 

What can we do about this 
problem? We can all contact our 
Senators and Representatives 
and ask that a pollution law be 
passed that has enough to it to 
put a stop to our damaging the 
streams of Georgia. 


load of trouble. This wos a common sight offer the 
uction program had gotten under way at Jackson Lake. 

lal fishermen shown taking Corp from net. (3) Roy 

weight of rough fish as Leo Nahlik looks on. (4) — Another 
oing to market. (5) — Ranger Chief Jules Bowling and Sheriff 
Butts County, check weights, kinds, and number of fish 
e v en tubs of fish from each boat amounts to a load of fish 
rom the water 

Life of a Ranger 

(Continued from Page 8) 

ranging from the ridiculous to 
the sublime. The diehard sports- 
man, interrupting his poker 
game, asks, "Where's the best 
place to fish tomorrow ?" or the 
antagonist remarks, "What's 
the bounty on game wardens 
this year?" or better still, "My 
boy is having a party, can you 
tell me what games he should 
play?" An individual will want 
to buy a license at three o'clock 
in the morning, yet wildlife ran- 
gers haven't sold licenses for a 
considerable number of years. 
Yes, it sounds foolish, doesn't it? 
But such questions are asked 
during all hours of the day or 
night. You don't believe it? — 
then ask a ranger's wife! 

Quite contrary to the belief of 
many, wildlife rangers are hu- 
man beings with feelings and 
emotions, much the same as any 
hunter in the field. On an aver- 
age the ranger commences his 
day in much the same manner 
as anyone else — the school 
teacher, the dentist or the busi- 
nessman. But during his early 
morning patrolling he encoun- 
ters a violation. He apprehends 
the party and betwixt questions 
and answers the unlawful gets 
a loose tongue and highlights 
his speech with descriptive 
words not commonly found in 
the modern day dictionary. Sup- 
pressing his feelings the ranger 
tries to explain the position of 
the Department or the circum- 
stances behind the arrest. 
Amidst sarcasm and slander the 
ranger holds his ground, but his 
patience has been pushed to the 
hilt and his remarks become 
sharp and concise. I'm wonder- 
ing if perhaps you too — yes, you 
Mr. Sportsman, and you Mr. 
Businessman, don't you have 
similar days, similar experiences 
in your business? 

All that is asked is that you 
do not condemn the ranger for 
those days he is ill at ease. With- 
hold your judgment until you see 
him in action again. Snap judg- 
ments of a person's character 
are unfair, depict a shallow mind 
and certainly aren't sportsman- 


like. Anyone who enforces our 
laws is behind the proverbial 
"eight ball." Place yourself in 
the ranger's shoes. Do you think 
you could work the entire fish- 
ing season without hurting at 
least someone's feelings? Or 
without being publicly criticized 
or rebuked for actions you may 
or may not have taken? I sin- 
cerely doubt it very much. It 
would almost seem that there is 
always someone who wants to 
make the work of the ranger 
more difficult, someone who 
wants to belittle him in front of 
people, but thank the Lord those 
people are in the minority. 

Besides checking this vast 
army of anglers for licenses, the 
ranger must also supervise the 
removal of rough fish from con- 
tract waters by commercial 
seiners. He must inspect boating 
concessions to see that they 
abide by safety measures pre- 
scribed by the Commission. They 
assist the Fisheries Division in 
the salvage of distressed fish and 
in the stocking of new fish in 
lakes and streams with their ter- 

A wildlife ranger's public rela- 
tions work goes on incessantly. 
Aside from his field work, yet on 
the adult level, he appears before 
sportsmen's clubs, civic and serv- 
ice organizations. But foremost, 
his instructions and demonstra- 
tions are the entertainment and 
the lesson of students, 4-H'ers, 
Boy Scouts, Y.C.L.'ers and Fu- 
ture Farmers of America. Even 
when the ranger enters a cafe 
for a cup of coffee the conversa- 
tion will generally center around 
the wildlife topic. If anyone has 
any complaints or questions con- 
cerning the seasons, the wildlife 
ranger is the man to whom they 
go for their answers, and right- 
fully so, for he has been desig- 
nated to represent the Depart- 
ment in the field. 

Ever since the turn of the cen- 
tury the wildlife ranger has been 
the public's conservation agent. 
Personally, I believe they have 
done a remarkably good job of 
protecting our game over a pe- 
riod of years. College trained re- 
search biologists, an outgrowth 
of the war years, have entered 
the wildlife picture. But regard- 

less of how much research data 
we may have accumulated now, 
or regardless of how much we 
may need for the future, fact of 
the matter is that the Law En- 
forcement Division, the State 
wildlife rangers are still needed 
to enforce the game laws passed 
by our State Legislature, and the 
regulations as set forth by the 
Game and Fish Commission. 

Wildlife rangers have come in 
contact with many wonderful 
people throughout the years. In 
their repertoire of memories 
many amusing incidents unfold, 
but too, their duty does not es- 
cape the bereaved moments of 
life. Occasionally the Depart- 
ment receives complimentary 
letters about our rangers, and 
editors of the state have public- 
ly commended them for their 
service. We want you to become 
better acquainted with your 
wildlife ranger. Get to know his 
problems, meet his family and 
make him a part of your com- 
munity. We have to have your 
support in order that we may do 
a good job. Remember, we can 
enforce the laws of Georgia only 
to the extent that the people of 
each city, town, village and ham- 
let want them enforced! 

A state wildlife ranger is your 
best friend. Good luck afield. 



State Combination Hunting 1 

& Fishing $ 3.25 

State Fishing 1.25 

State Hunting 2.25 


Season Fishing $ 

3-Day Fishing 1.00 

10-Day Fishing 3.25 


State Season Hunting $20.25 

State 10-Day Hunting 10.25 

County Season Hunt 10.25 


State Shad Fishing $ 1.00 

State Seiners & Netters 1.25 

Water Safety 

(Continued from Page 10) 

camps and endorsed by the State 
Game and Fish Commission. 

Each swimmer pairs off with 
a partner and they keep track 
of each other. This simple tech- 
nique makes help readily avail- 
able to a swimmer as soon as he 
gets in trouble. 

Even expert swimmers can 
get into trouble with cramps if 
they go in swimming when they 
are over-heated. We all know of 
the possibilities of getting 
cramps from going into the 
water soon after eating. 

Swimming and diving in 
strange water can be treach- 
erous. Underwater obstructions 
are a hazard that claims lives 
every summer. 

Boating, even for non-swim- 
mers, can be safe, if reasonable 
precautions are taken. Of course, 
you should have a life preserver 
along if you can't swim. There 
are many types of modern life 
preservers that are small, com- 
pact and easy to use. 

On the larger waters, such as 
the reservoirs, even the boatman 
who knows how to swim, should 
use a life preserver. Boats on 
these waters should be well con- 
structed and "seaworthy." Out- 
board motors should not be too 
powerful for the size boat you 
are using. 

Experienced boatmen in the 
reservoir areas will advise you 
to head for shore at the first in- 
dication of a storm. These large 
waters can become very danger- 
ous for small craft during 

Capsizing of small boats is a 
constant danger, unless you and 
your passengers use common 
sense. Never stand up in the 
boat. This is a well-known rule, 
but each year boats are over- 
turned and lives are lost because 
of failure to heed this simple 

Plain common sense can erase 
all the danger from recreation 
on Georgia waters. You and your 
family can have many hours of 
fun and outdoor recreation if 
vou follow this advice. 


Old Mother Nature's 

(Continued from Page 4) 

built just as strong. 

After the water level was 
reached these beavers built sev- 
eral houses or lodges. Once more 
their engineering ingenuity was 
brought into play. The first step 
in the building of these lodges 
was to cut saplings and twigs 
which were brought out to the 
spot that had been picked for the 
lodge and were anchored to the 
bottom, and then were piled 
higher and higher into a dome- 
shaped pile until several feet 
of sticks were exposed above the 
water line. Each lodge has two 
tunnels into it for exits. One 
runs at a right angle and the 
other runs straight into cham- 
ber of lodge. The straight tunnel 
is used for bringing in pieces of 
limbs and twigs that are to be 
used as food. The inside of these 
lodges have a mud platform built 
several inches above the water 
line and these mud floors are 
covered with dried rushes and 
shavings from the limbs that 
they cut. The walls are plastered 
with mud up to a foot or two of 
the top. The dome-shaped top 
is not covered or plastered with 
mud but the twigs and limbs 
keep predators and the elements 
out, but there is a sufficient 
amount of air that filters in to 
meet the demand of the number 
of beavers using the lodge. 

The beavers cut a supply of 
trees for their food during the 
winter and they take this supply 
out and anchor it underwater 
near the tunnel and when they 
get hungry they go out and get 
what is needed from this big 

It was noticed that after the 
..its came in May, the old male 
beaver left the lodge and set up 
bachelor quarters in a bank den, 
and left the feeding and raising 
of the young to the mother. 

Often we hear that beavers 
have cleaned out a small pond of 

Pan Fish 

(Continued from Page 17) 

control work in many ponds 
throughout the state. Biological 
surveys have shown that the fish 
populations in these waters are 
out of balance. It is better to re- 
move some of the over-populated 
and stunted pan fish than it is 
to stock more fish and add to an 
already undesirable situation. 

Direct control measures con- 
sist of netting, draining, or the 
use of chemicals to thin out fish 
populations. What works on one 
pond may not work on the next ; 
sometimes a combination of 
these methods is used. Indirect 
control includes habitat (living 
area) improvement, concentrated 
stocking of predators, liberaliza- 
tion of regulations, and encour- 
aging the fishing public to catch 
and keep more pan fish. 

State Game and Fish Com- 
mission personnel are able to 
work on so few waters during the* 
relatively short summer months 
that they need help from the 
fishing public. The fisherman 
who wants to help doesn't have 
to have any special equipment, 
either — his regular fishing gear 
will do. By keeping a larger 
number of pan fish, instead of 
throwing the medium-sized and 
little ones back, he can contrib- 
ute to the betterment of his own 
fishing. He can pass the word 
along to others, and see that the 
youngsters learn early to keep 
'em all. In short, without much 
extra effort he can be a conser- 

fish but nothing could be fur- 
ther from the truth. Beavers are 
not flesh eaters but their diet is 
made up of barks, water plants 
and small twigs. When a beaver 
pond is found usually there is 
always good bream fishing. Dur- 
ing the past winter many ducks 
used these ponds as resting 
spots, and some are still on these 
ponds where food is abundant. 
The beavers are not only the 
greatest engineers but also won- 
derful conservationists. 


Fish Stocking 

(Continued from Page 13) 

other game fish to a size where 
they would be attractive to an- 

In numerous waters we can 
now have good trout fishing on- 
ly by planting catchable-size 
fish. The cost is high. A single 
legal limit costs more than the 
price of a license. But, such 
stocking is justified if the trout 
fisherman is willing to pay the 
bill. In many trout waters, the 
question is one of having put- 
and-take stocking, or having no 
fishing at all. Of course, such 
stocking is justified only on 
heavily fished waters where a 
big percentage of the planted 
fish will be retaken by the an- 

In general, stocking with cold- 
water species may be expected 
to benefit fishing under these 

1. Stocking lakes where con- 
ditions are suitable, but where 
the trout have no spawning 
areas. Usually fingerlings may 
be stocked under these condi- 
tions. Many trout lakes provide 
good fishing only because of pe- 
riodic fingerling stocking; 
others have adequate natural 

2. Restocking lakes with fin- 
gerlings after removal of exist- 
ing fish populations by use of 
retenone or by draining. The 
state of Washington, for ex- 
ample, has provided excellent 
trout fishing in a number of 
waters by this method. 

3. Stocking with catchable- 
size trout. This is the only meth- 
od of providing good trout fish- 
ing on many very heavily fished 
waters, either because they are 
not good trout waters or because 
they cannot raise enough fish 
naturally to take care of the de- 
mand. For best results the fish 
must usually be planted at inter- 
vals just before and during the 
open season. Most studies show 
a low winter survival of these 

4. Stocking with anadromous 
fishes. Planting of small salmon 
is helpful where the spawning 


habitat has been destroyed by 
the building of dams or by other 
activity. Too, stocking with 
steelhead on the west coast has 
greatly improved the runs of 
these fish. 


Introductions have been both 
beneficial and harmful. For ex- 
ample, trout fishing has been 
created in many waters by in- 
troducing trout ; fishing in some 
waters has been destroyed by in- 
troducing carp. 

Often sportsmen tend to want 
those species introduced which 
are not already present. If these 
succeed, they must generally do 
so at the expense of native spe- 
cies. Carrying capacity is lim- 
ited. If we add horses, sheep and 
mules to a pasture, the pasture 
will necessarily support fewer 
cows than it could support be- 
fore the other species were 

In General 

Stocking isn't a cure-all. For 
a while its value was greatly 
overemphasized. It's only one of 
the various fish management 
tools. However, it is still a very 
important tool. Its value will de- 
pend on how intelligently the 
tool is used. The need for stock- 
ing should be definitely estab- 
lished before we stock. It should 
be established not by the man 
who raises fish, or by the sports- 
men, but by competent trained 
fishery personnel through a 
study of the habitat and the fish 
population already present. 

The American Fisheries So- 
ciety's committee on hydrobiol- 
ogy and fish culture gave a 
comprehensive report on ad- 
vances in these two fields at a 
recent meeting of the Society in 
Seattle. Here is one of the many 
important observations given in 
the report: 

Much improvement in the use 
of hatcheries ana hatchery prod- 
ucts is still urgently needed. All 
too frequently a hatchery pro- 
gram is operated as a distinct 
and separate function of a Fish 
and Game Agency rather than 
as a branch or tool of a Fisheries 
Management Division. Hatchery 
superintendents, sportsmen, for- 
est rangers, and many others 
who have no knowledge of ecol- 




1 Treat every gun with the respect 
due a loaded gun. This is the first 
rule of gun safety. 

2 Guns carried into camp or home, 
or when otherwise not in use, must 
always be unloaded, and taken down 
or have actions open; guns always 
should be carried in cases to the shoot- 
ing area. 

3 Always be sure barrel and action 
are clear of obstructions, and that you 
have only ammunition of the proper 
size for the gun you are carrying. 
Remove oil and grease from chamber 
before firing. 

t Always carry your gun so that you 
can control the direction of the muz- 
zle, even if you stumble; keep the 
safety on until you are ready to shoot. 

5 Be sure of your target before you 
pull the trigger; know the identifying 
features of the game you intend to 

6 Never point a gun at anything you 
do not want to shoot; avoid all horse- 
play while handling a gun. 

7 Unattended guns should be un- 
loaded; guns and ammunition should 
be stored separately beyond reach of 
children and careless adults. 

8 Never climb a tree or jump a ditch 
with a loaded gun; never pull a gun 
toward you by the muzzle. 

9 Never shoot a bullet at a flat, hard 
surfa:e or the surface of water; when 
at target practice, be sure your back- 
stop is adequate. 

10 Avoid alcoholic drinks before or 
during shooting. 

ogy or fish populations are given 
full charge of fish plantings. 
Fish released by such individu- 
als frequently have less chance 
for survival than a palm tree in 
Chicago. Productive — and conse- 
quently successful — hatchery 
programs can be expected only 
where trained fishery biologists 
are handling planting programs 
and are judiciously using hatch- 
eries as only one phase of a fish- 
ries management program. 

ill .- ■ - 

1 /\ - ^ 


'■ •• 




The True Meaning 

(Continued from Page 3) 

knew, by physical perception, all 
that they had lived for was in 
the tomb. Doubtless many peo- 
ple ridiculed them with what in 
modern times would be termed 
"wise cracks." Doubtless they 
were sorely worried and desper- 
ate men, and it is safe to assume 
that they sought some means of 
escape from their troubles. 

What did they do? Seven of 
them went fishing. They were 
Simon Peter, Thomas, Nathan- 
iel, the sons of Zebedee and two 
others. They fished all night and 
caught nothing, but they were 
close to the waters, the sky and 
the night. The next morning 
they were returning to the shore 
when their Master appeared to 
them. He was the one thing they 
wanted and needed most. The 
fulfillment of all of their hopes 
and desires. 

So, let's go fishing. It is quite 
possible that we too may find 
in nature at least some of the 
things we desire, if no more 
than a little peace, relaxation 
and serenity. 
Courtesy of 

The Augusta Chronicle-Herald 

Young' flounder swim upright like 
other fish. When they are about an 
inch long, one eye moves over the top 
of the fish's head to nearly join the 
other. The fish starts to swim with the 
blind side down, which turns white, 
and the baby becomes a flat fish — 
Guide for Sport Fishermen. 

The thinnest fish imaginable is 

the sundial, which resembles a fluke 
that has been run over by a steam 
roller. When held up to the light, the 
fish is translucent, giving rise to the 
nickname "Window Pane." - Guide 
f«n- Spent Fishermen. 



Game and Fish Commission 

412 State Capitol 



The Commission is a constitutional body, responsible only to the Legislature and 
the Governor. 

Eleven in number — one from each Congressional District — the members of the 
Commission are appointed by the Governor for staggered terms of seven years and 
the Commission in turn appoints the director. 

The present Commissioners are: 


J. 0. Bowen. 5th Dist.. Chairman 

J. D. Pope. 4th Dist. 
George East. 6th Dist. 
W. B. (Bill) Austin. 7th Dist 
Alva J. Hopkins. 8th Dist. 
Luke L. Couch, 10th Dist. 
James Goethe. Coastal 

Cason Callaway, Jr., 3rd Dist. 

V ice-Chairman 
Fred C. Jones. Jr.. 9th Dist. 

James F. Darby, Jr.. 1st Dist. 
Richard Tift. 2nd Dist. 

Fulton Lovell. Director 
W. H. Hodges. Enforcement Fred Dickson. Fish Management 

Jack Crockford. Game Manage- C. C. James, Hatcheries 

ment David Gould. Coastal Fisheries 

W. K. CORNELISON. Information and Education 

The heads of the various departments and all employees are appointed bv the 
Director on the approval of the Commission. The Director is a bonded state official 
and directs the entire prncram. which is established, and ways and means approved 
for its operation, by the Board of Commissioners at regular meetings. 

Game & Fish 

(Continued from Page 2) 

The Legislature has enacted 
proper laws so that this situa- 
tion can be coped with. Jackson 
Lake, which is a Georgia Power 
Company impoundment, was 
opened to this type fishing on 
an experimental basis. Since no 
commercial fishermen existed in 
the State with proper experience 
and equipment, it was necessary 
to entice out-of-state fishermen. 
We were fortunate in securing 
four men who had experience on 
the Mississippi River and other 
places. They moved in and fished 
6 days, taking approximately 
4,500 pounds of Carp. The near- 
est market where these fish 
could be sold in large quantities 
was Memphis, Tennessee. Since 
all fish are highly perishable, it 
will be necessary that a local 
market be established. It is 
hoped that interested people can 
be contacted to establish the 

proper type of industry so that 
we may hold to a minimum one 
of the greatest problems which 
confronts us in the fish restora- 
tion work. 

From additional reports and 
observances by personnel of the 
Department, we find that pol- 
lution is increasing, and since 
pollution kills all types of ma- 
rine life, we believe that the 
people are now demanding in 
sufficient numbers that a proper 
type pollution law be enacted. 
We know from the experiences 
of other States that we can have 
industry and at the same time 
have clear water in our streams 
and lakes. Other States that 
have been in worse condition 
than Georgia have enacted prop- 
er pollution laws so that now 
they still have industry in those 
States, along with the fresh wa- 
ter, which is necessary, not only 
to restore good fishing, but to 
provide good water which is nec- 
essary in the life of every other 
living thing, as well as for addi- 
tional industry. 

II III 1 1 

3'siDfi DM55M QSia 


s\ Fmezmtis pmca 

6od qrant that I mai| live, 
to fish until mq dqirtq daq. 

X find when it conies to mq last cast, 
I then most humblq praq, 

When in the fords sale landinq net 
I'm peaceful 1 1| asleep, 

hat in W is mercq I be judqed, 
fls qood enouqh to keep. 

From Wildlife in North Carolina 

Georgia Game and Fish Commission 




34.66, P. 

_. a r. 








Mr. W. G, Drum 
Emanuel College 
Franklin Springs, Ga,